My father was a very
robust, powerfully built man. Muscular. But strangely enough,
his hands were very delicate. They weren't big. A lot of people
like to think, since he was a great big man, that he ate enormous
amounts of food. But he was a very delicate eater. He gave the
impression of great power, physical power which was very obvious.
One of the stories around Chadds Ford was about a milk train he
would meet and how he would help the farmers lift their cans,
these enormous ten-gallon cansone in each handup onto
the platform beside the tracks. That gives an idea of his physical
But he had other sides to him also. He was a man who admired many
artsliterary, dramatic, musical. From being hardly a reader
at all in his youth, he had become a constant reader. He had a
remarkable talent for writing. My mother's mother got him reading
Thoreau. He also read Tolstoy. And he loved Robert Frost. He thought
Keats was terrific. He loved Emily Dickinson. He was interested
in drama. He went to see, and talked about it many, many times,
Mourning Becomes Electra. He loved music. It was emotional.
That's where we kids certainly learned about. it. On Sundays after
dinner we'd lie on the floor and listen to it. He loved Rembrandt.
He admired George de Forest Brush and mentioned him often to me.
He was a complex man in many ways.
Illustration from Treasure Island
I grew up and became mature under him. He had a marvelous way
of never talking down to a young person. And I spent a lot of
time with my fathermuch more than the rest of the children
did. When I was a child I'd go out into the back room of the studio
where he kept his drawings and paintings and many reproductions.
Often I'd drag them out, wipe the dust off, and ask him about
them. He told me so many things about these pictures that I got
a pretty thorough knowledge of what he had done. I also spent
hours in his studio going through his books of medieval armor,
his historical books, and trying on costumes that he stored in
his big chests. The costumes fascinated me. I was able to spend
the time because I wasn't going to public school, I was being
tutored at home. While all the rest were being shipped off to
be educated, I was being educated by my father in a very direct
way; I feel very lucky.
As an illustrator, my father's life revolved around children;
yet he was a very severe father and did not pamper us in any way.
He loved our imagination and it excited him, so our Christmases
and Easters and Valentine's Daysall those occasionsmeant
a great deal. And although he was a born illustrator for children,
his works elevated the level of illustration. I think this is
the thing that bothered the social or literary people about my
father's illustrations. I remember someone said to meprobably
Philip Hofer"You know, your father's illustrations
are really paintings. They jump out of the pages and in a certain
way ruin the looks of the book. They don't fit. Now when you see
the originals and discover the size of themand then you
think of Rackham, whose images are all tiny (they're illustrations!)you
realize that your father painted on the barn-door scale."
Pa lifted illustration into something it had never been before.
He set himself apart. He transformed the nature of illustration.
The Battle at Glens Falls, 1919
Pa believed his artistic
talents and literary interests were the contribution of his mother's
Swiss-French heritage. He was doing watercolors by the age of
twelve, working with a local woman, Cora Livingston, who lived
down the street in Needham. When he was about to turn twenty,
he traveled to Wilmington with hopes of being accepted as a student
by Howard Pyle.
Illustration was already in my father's soul; he had his thoughts
already in mind. All he really needed was the technical training.
It's astounding how quickly he learned to paint under Pyle. I
mean, it was a year and a half, and he just tore through the training
and was off. Soon after beginning work with Pyle, my father received
commissions for magazine illustrations. Within a few years he
was a full-time illustrator. Some of his earliest commercial illustrations
were of the West. Pa knew the Navajos; he lived with them.
Over the next fifteen years he received several important book
commissions. Yet look at those books: he used a new style for
almost every one. He was always groping for something new. He
was experimenting in painting. But he began each book project
in the same wayhe read the story.
Pa's first and foremost interest was: Is it a well-written story?
Is it a vital story? What he wanted to do was to bring air into
those books that had been sitting in libraries for decades. People
often refer to the books Pa illustrated as "children's classics,"
but I don't think you can call The Last of the Mohicans
a child's book. And certainly The Mysterious Stranger by
Mark Twain is not a child's book.
In many of his paintings,
the faces have a relaxed, almost deathlike quality that is extraordinary.
I once asked about this. Pa said, "Andy, I'll tell you."
And he drove his point right home to me: "When my mother
died, I took the train right to Needham. I got there in the late
afternoon and they had her laid in her bed upstairs. I went up
and sat there with her, with that amazing face that looked like
the mother of Europe. As the sun went down, studying that face
lying there on that white pillow and that waxy skin"he
was almost whispering"it made such a deep impression
on me. Andy, if you ever have a chance to be with someone you
have loved, don't hesitate to do it, because that's the most profound
quality, a head in death. It changed everything for me."
Twenty years later my father was killed. I arrived from Maine
the next afternoon. I didn't stop to say anything. I took the
car up to the Birmingham Meeting and I sat there in that meeting
house where he and Newell, my brother Nat's son, lay. I will never
forget that scene and the dry leaves blowing in late October.
I remembered what my father said. He was so right. Their faces
had become masks of eternity. I couldn't have taken the funeral
the next day if I hadn't done that. For some reason that afternoon
with them just raised my spirit so that I was sort of hovering
above. It sounds a little melodramatic now, but my entire point
of view was looking down on the whole thing.
The commercial illustrations Pa did provided a relatively steady
income. All those done for Treasure Island and the other
early books were sold outright to publishers and they kept them.
Scribner's sold them or gave them away. For instance, the Barrymores
bought three of the Treasure Island works. And Mr. Randall,
who was in charge of the rare book department of Scribner's at
one time, apparently sold pictures. Russell Colt bought the Kidnapped
and Last of the Mohicans pictures. Imagine if Pa had done
the Treasure Island pictures on royalties; instead, he
got $5,000 for doing them. At that time, that was a lot of money,
of course. He did a few books for royalties much later. The Mysterious
Stranger was done on a royalty basis and didn't sell at all.
|Betsy and Andrew's wedding, May 15, 1940, East
Aurora, New York. N. C. is at right.
My father really worked
in a variety of media. He did watercolor. Some very early watercolors
done when he was twelve years old are remarkable and show a lovely
feeling for wash. He also did watercolors in his letters. Once
in a while when we were kids he would come out and he would do
a watercolor of a pirate head or something, always beautifully
done. Pa was always excited by my interest in watercolor. But
a lot of my early ones were trite drawings filled in with color;
I was illustrating Robin Hood or The Three Musketeers,
things like that. Then one fall day while I was out in the orchard
doing an apple tree he asked, "Andy, why don't you really
free yourself?" He sat down by me and did this watercolor,
very free, of an apple tree. He didn't pursue watercolor himself
because he felt that it wasn't his medium. He was crazy, of course.
He was a master technician.
Pa rarely worked in pen and ink. I always liked his pen drawings
for Rip Van Winkle and The Mysterious Islandthey
had great quality. But he dismissed them, saying, "No, Andy,
they're pencil drawings rendered in ink. You have a feeling for
pen and ink. I don't." That's why he got me to do all of
those pen and ink drawings in Men of Concord and the Hornblower
series for him. The publisher never knew.
His use of charcoal
is fascinating. It comes through the oil. When he did his early
illustrations, he quickly drew them right on the canvas in charcoal,
marvelous drawings with rich blacks. Then he would start right
in with his oil, with glazes, and you could see his thumb marks
and other things building these up.
All the illustrations were oil. He never did an illustration in
egg tempera, though people think he did. I know, I was with him.
In the thirties he was doing oil, but very, very thin oil. As
the forties approached, I think of my father having a red sable
brush and a little bit of egg tempera, having to mix it up and
build up a cross-hatching for his landscapes. It was not Pa's
quality. It was not like the man. In one of our last talks, Stanley
Arthurs said, "Your father should never have left the oil
medium. He was so much at home with oil. All we students in the
Pyle class would just marvel at the way he could work with charcoal
and with transparent oil mixed with turpentine glazes and how
these illustrations would come out of these enormous canvases.
For him to take up a medium like tempera was a great tragedy."
Pa was my only teacher. He taught me watercolors and oils. I remember
one day when I was working in oil, doing a head of a man in strong
light, and I started to get a lot of half-lights in the shadow
side, reflected light. And he said, "You know, Andy, you've
started out well, but you've lost your simplicity." He took
his finger and he put it in some raw sienna and using his thumb
just simplified that whole shadow. He made it sing. That's the
painterliness that you find in pictures for Treasure Island
and Kidnapped and in "Mowing" (page 19). Another
time I was drawing an illustration. I guess I was about 18, and
the image was of this man leaping out of a tree onto a man below.
It was to be the perspective of looking down on the figure who
was looking up and being leapt on. My father said, "You'll
have to get a model for this, but you want to get this feeling,
" and he quickly made a drawing of the figure looking up
with his hands out, startled by this figure falling. It was a
marvelous little drawing. Then I got a model and had him stand
below me in that position as I got up in a tree. My father's drawing
was absolutely accurate! But far better than that because it had
an expression and expressiveness.
The 1920s and 1930s
were a very social period. My father enjoyed it. We kids never
knew who was coming, I mean, they were always driving in with
these enormous cars. I remember Scott Fitzgerald in a touring
car with all these big straw hats, and oh, we kids had a great
time with that. The Great Gatsby, right here! But of course, the
Fitzgeralds lived nearby for a time. Joseph Hergesheimer was another
big drawing card here and a very good friend of my father's. He'd
bring down his manuscripts and stay up all night reading them
to Pa. Other visitors were Hugh Walpole, Lillian Gish, John Gilbert,
who played in The Big Paradeoh, the list is long.
Richard Barthelmess, Paul Horgan, Eric Knight, who wrote This
Above All and Lassie, Come Home. Of course, both Paul
and Eric were friends of Pete and Henriette. I would almost call
them students of Pa's literary side. Oh, yes, and Max Perkins,
the editor at Scribner's, was always asking Pa to write.
He was still a keen observer of life. Just minutes before he died
here in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania he was overheard talking to
Nat's son about bundling shocks of corn: "This is something
you must remember because this is something that is passing."
It's an incident that is very compelling. A year or so later,
Betsy picked up the woman whom he had been watching with the corn
that day and drove her to Kennett Square. She told Betsy all about
how Pa stopped and brought the little boy over and showed him
what she and her husband were doing and talked all about the corn.
Finally he said good-bye and returned to the car. She went back
to work. About three minutes went by. They heard the train and
this terrible crash. It's so ironic he was killed so close to
home. He had talked to me a year before as we walked down that
railroad track and he showed me the spring where the Howard Pyle
students would stop along the railroad and get water. It was still
running. And a year later he was killed near that spot. It was
October 19, the same date that he had first arrived here to study
with Howard Pyle.
Abridged from An American Vision: Three Generations
of Wyeth Art (Boston: Little, Brown, 1987.)